Jews in Novograd-Volynskiy, Ukraine
Novograd-Volynsky is a regional center in the Zhytomyr region of Ukraine. Known in chronicles since 1256. Until 1795, it was called Zvyagel.
The Jews in the village have been known since 1488. A document of the King of Lithuania Casimir Jagiellon about the transfer of taverns and fees to three Jews from Lutsk has been preserved.
In 1620, Jews owned seven houses in Zvyagel. All of them were located near the castle in the area of Rynkovaya Street. In 1648, the community suffered from the revolted Cossacks.
The Jewish community was restored by the 18th century. The Great Synagogue was built in 1740.
In 1784, there were 240 registered Jewish heads of families in the city, who paid taxes. Three years later, there were already 281.
By the end of the 18th century, Jews made up 76% of the city's population. Throughout the 19th century, the number of the Jewish population in Novograd-Volynskiy fluctuated within 50%. The city plan of 1837 has been preserved, from which it can be seen that houses and shops belonging to Jews are compactly located in the area of the market square.
In the 19th century, Jews held prominent positions in the city administration, were burgomasters and ratmans. In the 1820s, one of the city streets, Koretskaya, was paved with the money of the qahal.
By the end of the 19th century, Jews constituted 55.6% of the urban population. Of the 9.3 thousand Jews who lived in the city, 1.5 thousand were employed in trade.
In Novograd-Volynskiy, in addition to the synagogue, there were more than 20 houses of prayer operating on a professional basis (artisans, merchants, etc.). Most of them were located on Shkolnaya Street, which local Jews dubbed Shilglas (Synagogalnaya). Most of the Jews in Novograd-Volynskiy were Hasidim. The dynasty of the Goldman tsadiks was formed here.
At the beginning of the 20th century, over 70% of the city's artisans were Jews. There were two poor quarters in the city - Warsaw and Nieder.
In 1912, a Jew named Unik bought a bus and started regular bus transportation to Zhytomyr.
In the first third of the twentieth century, the share of Jews in the urban population decreased from 52.2% in 1913 to 28.8% in 1939. The number of believers also decreased. In 1930, out of 6,700 Jews, only over 600 were officially members of a religious community. By the late 1930s, all religious institutions were closed.
During the Second World War, more than 3 thousand Jews became victims of the Holocaust and more than 350 died at the front. Until the 1960s, there was a religious community. It owned house 24 on Troitskaya Street. In the summer of 1960, the city authorities transferred it to the balance sheet of Municipal Public Education Authority. Until the 1980s, the community was in an illegal situation, gathering in apartments and private houses.
In May 1992, the community received official registration. According to 2001 data, 200 Jews lived in Novograd-Volynskiy.